The level of coverage is sufficiently deep to be of value to both trainees and established scientists and clinicians interested in an evidenced-based approach. The alcohol-attributable fractions, defined as the proportion of a disease or acute condition in a population attributable to alcohol drinking, were calculated to obtain the number of patients in each disease or acute condition attributable to alcohol drinking. Under an Elsevier user license open archive ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to estimate health-care costs because of diseases caused by alcohol consumption based on health system's perspective. Methods Total direct health-care costs of alcohol drinking were the summation of the costs of alcohol drinking in inpatient and outpatient departments due to chronic diseases and acute conditions using prevalence-based approach. Results Total health-care costs attributed to alcohol in this research were million baht i. Each chapter highlights key issues in the respective topic area and raises unanswered questions for future research.